Undergraduate Program (BSS)

Bachelor of Social Science (Honors) – Part II

(Sessions: 2018-2019, 2019-2020, 2020-2021, 2021-2022)
Course Outline

GP-201: Western Political Thought: Modern

Learning Objectives
  • To introduce students with an overview to the great texts of modern political thought
  • To enable students with necessary analytical skills to examine and evaluate influences of modern political thought on the issues and practices in the context of changing political process and institutions
Learning Outcomes
  • To examine the meaning and justification of important concepts such as sovereignty, freedom, equality and rights
  • To apply the thoughts and ideas of modern political scientist in future study
  • To be able to examine how western political thought comes onto the purview of modern political understanding and how they influence the political process and institutions in the east
Course Content

Socio-Economic Background of Modern Political Thought.

Renaissance and Reformation, Rise of Modern Nation State─ Machiavelli, Bodin, Hobbes, Industrial Capitalism and Democracy─ Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau.

Liberalism, Utilitarianism.

Idealism, Capitalism, Socialism.

Selected Readings

Andrew Hacker, Political Theory: Philosophy, Ideology, Science, Cornell University, The Macmillan Company, 1961.

Arnold Brecht, Political Theory: The Foundation of Twentieth Century Political Thought, Bombay: Times of India Press, 1970.

Crane Brinton, The Shaping of Modern Political Thought, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1963.

Ebenstein, William, Great Political Thinkers, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi, 1977.

George H. Sabine, A History of Political Theory, New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing, 1973.

I. H. Monk, A History of Modern Political Thought, London: Blackwell Publishers, 1993.

John H. Hallowell, Main Currents in Modern Political Thought, New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1957.

Karl Marxs, Das Kapital, India: Atlantic Books, 13 July 2006.

Rymond G. Gettell, History of Political Thought, London: Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1964.

V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, USA: International Publishers, 1929.

GP-202: Oriental Political Thought: Ancient and Mediaeval

Learning Objectives
  • To provide students with the understanding and appreciation of Oriental life and thought
  • To know the influences of oriental philosophers on state, politics and society
  • To learn how dose Oriental political philosophy and thought differ from that of the Occidental
Learning Outcomes
  • To be able to explain and discuss the oriental political thought in the context of ancient and mediaeval era
  • To use the thought and ideas of oriental political thinkers in explaining the society, polity and statecraft
  • To examine the influences of oriental political thought in the design of government and state in the orient
Course Content

Concept of Orientalism.

Ancient Indian Political Thought – Background; Sources.

Brahmanic, Buddhist and Jain Traditions: Sacred Law.

Concept of State and Government.

Kautilya and Arthashastra.

Ancient Chinese Political Thought: Confucianism, Taoism.

Mediaeval Sub–Continental Political Thought: Atish Dipankar, Abul Fazal- Ain-E-Akbari, Akbar the Great – Din-E-Elahi.

Arab Political Thought: Sources and Background – Al-Farabi, Ibne-Rushd, Ibne Sina, Ibne Khaldun, Imam Gazzali, Nizamul Mulk-Tusi, Imam Abu Zar Ghafari, Iman Ibn Tayamia.

Selected Readings

A. S. Altekar, State and Government in Ancient India, New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 2002.

Bhasker Anand Selatore, Ancient Indian Political Thought and Institutions, Asia Pub. House, 1963.

Edward Said, Orientalism, New York: Vintage Books, 1978.

H. G. Greel, Confucious and the Chinese Way, Gloucester, USA: Peter Smith Pub, 2000.

H. K. Sherwani, Muslim Political Thought and Administration, New Delhi: Idarah-i-Adaliyati, 1976.

Jawaharlal Nehru, The Discovery of India, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Karl A. Wittfogel, Oriental Despotism: A Comparative Study of Total power, New York: Vintage Books, 1981.

Kautilya, The Arthashastra, New Delhi: Penguin Books India, 1992.

Kohli Ritu, Kautilya’s Political Theory, New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications, 1995.

Reuben Levy, The Social Structure of Islam, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969.

S. N. Dubey, Development of Political Thought in India, Dubey: ACME Publications, 1983.

UN Ghosal, A History of Indian Political Ideas, Bombay: Oxford University Press, 1966.

Virender Grover, Political Thinkers of Modern India, New Delhi: Deep & Deep Publications, 1990.

GP-203: Approaches to the Study of Politics

Learning Objectives
  • To give students an overview to the conventional and modern approaches to the study of politics
  • To explore the assumptions that underpins different political and theoretical traditions in the discipline, and the strengths and limitations of each approach
Learning Outcomes
  • To use the various approaches to the study of political science and its allied segment
  • To be able to apply approaches in the analysis, explanation and assessment of academic undertakings and accomplishments
Course Content

Politics: Meaning, Nature and Scope─ Traditional and Behavioral Perspectives, Post-Behaviouralism and its limitations.

Approaches to the study of politics: System Analysis, Structural-Functional Analysis, Elite Theory, Rational Choice Theory, Group Theory, Role Theory, Decision-Making Theory, Conflict Theory, Game Theory, Communication Theory, Psychological Approaches. Marxist and Neo-Marxist Approaches.

Selected Readings

Allan C. Isaac, Scope and Methods of Political Science, Illinois: Dorsey, 1975.

David Easton, The Political System: An Inquiry into the State of Political Science, New York: Knopf, 1953.

G. A. Almond and G. B. Powell, Comparative Politics Today: A Worldview, Boston: Foresman & Co., 1988.

G. A. Almond and G. B. Powell, Comparative Politics: A Developmental Approach, Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1966.

G. A. Almond and J. S. Coleman, (eds.), The Politics of the Developing Areas, Princeton, N J: PrincetonUniversity Press, 1960.

G. A. Almond and Sidney Verba, The Civic Culture, Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1965.

Harold D. Lasswell, Politics: Who Gets What, When and How, New York: The World Publishing Company, 1958.

Myron Weiner and Samul P. Huntington, Understanding Political Development,Boston: Little Brown anCo., 1965.

Stephan Wasby, Political Science: The Discipline and its Dimension, New York: Scribner, 1970.

এমাজউদ্দিন আহমদ, তুলনামুলক রাজনীতি ও রাজনৈতিক বিশ্লেষণ, ঢাকাঃ বাংলাদেশ বুক করপোরেশন লিঃ, ১৯৯৫ ।

মোঃ আব্দুল মান্নান, তুলনামুলক রাজনীতি ও রাজনৈতিক বিশ্লেষণ পদ্ধতি, ঢাকাঃ নভেল পাবলিশার্স, ২০১১ ।

GP-204: Introduction to Sociology

Learning Objectives
  • To impart conceptual clarity of important basic concepts of sociology
  • To help students broaden their knowledge about social problems and their solution
Learning Outcomes
  • To be able to define basic concepts of sociology and to understand our social world
  • To be able to explain political phenomena from sociological perspective
Course Content

Sociology: Meaning Nature and scope, Sociological Theories, Relation with Political Science.

Basic concepts: Society, Community, Association, Institution, Groups - Primary and Secondary, Reference Groups, In-Groups and Out Groups.

Social Structure, Social Stratification, Social Conflict and Conflict Resolution, Social Mobilization.

Social Power: Origin of Social Power, Bases of Social Power, Patron-Client Relations.

Culture, Political Culture, Political Socialization and Political Participation.

Ideology and Change: Political Beliefs and Values – Fanaticism, Communalism, Secularism.

Religion: Defining Religion, Varieties of Religion, Theories of Religion, Functions of Religion, Conflict Perspective of Religion.

Social Structure and Power, Forms of Social Stratification, Social Differences and Inequality, Theories of Stratification.

Kinship, Marriage and Family, Kinship and Social Structure, Organization of Kin Groups, Economic– Political Relations.

Social Change: Meaning, Causes, Agents of Social Change, Theories of Social Change, Social Change and Modernization.

Major Social Problems: Drug, Violence Against Women, Corruption, Terrorism, Unemployment, Illiteracy, Poverty, Begging, Prostitution, Healthcare etc. (Reference from Bangladesh may be drawn).

(Field study may be required for practical understanding of social issues)

Selected Readings

A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, Structure and Function in Primitive Society, London: Cohen, 1952.

Andre Betille, Studies in Agrarian Social Structure, London: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Arnold W. Green, Sociology, (6th ed), McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1972.

B. K. Jahangir, Differentiation, Polarisation and Confrontation in Rural Bangladesh, Centre for Social Studies, 1979.

Beth B, Hess et.al, Sociology, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1988.

Donald Light Jr. and Suzanne Keller (ed), Sociology, (3rd ed), Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1982.

Hamza Alavi and Heodor Shanin (eds.), Introduction to Sociology of Developing Societies, New York: Monthly Review Press, 1982.

James W. Vander Zanden, Sociology (4th ed), John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1979.

Lewis A. Coser and Bernard Rosenberg (ed), Sociological Theory, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1914.

Michael Banton, Political System and Distribution of Power, USA: Tavistock Publications, 1975.

Morton Fricd, H.The Evolution of Political Society, New York: Random House, 1967.

P. C. Wasburn, Political Sociology: Approaches, Concepts, Hypothesis, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1982.

Paul B. Horton and Chester L. Hunt, Sociology, (3rd ed), McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1980.

R. M. MacIver, State and Society, Routledge: University of Stellenbosch, 1977.

Richard T. Schaefer and Robert P. Lamm, Sociology, McGraw-Hall, New York, 1998.

Robert A. Dahl, Modern Political Analysis, USA: Yale University Press, 2004.

Ronald Cohen and Elman R. Service, eds., Origin of the State, Institute of Human Issues, 1978.

Ronald Inglehart, The Silent Revolution, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1977.

S. M. Lipset, Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1960.

Santi Rozario, Purity and Communal Boundaries, Women and Social Change in a Bangladesh Village, Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1992.

Shamsul I. Khan et al, Political Culture, Political Parties and the Democratic Transition in Bangladesh, Dhaka: Academic Publishers, 1996.

T. B. Bottomore, Elites and Society, New York: Routledge, 1993.

ফ্রেডরিক এঙ্গেলস, পরিবার, ব্যক্তিগত সম্পত্তি ও রাষ্ট্রের উৎপত্তি, ঢাকাঃ প্রগতি প্রকাশন, ১৯৭৭ ।

এরিক, জে জানসেন, গ্রামীণ বাংলাদেশে সীমিত সম্পদের প্রতিযোগিতা, ( অনুবাদঃ ডালেম চন্দ্র বর্মণ ), ঢাকাঃ সমাজ নিরীক্ষণ কেন্দ্র, ১৯৯০

ভেলাম ভান সেন্দেল, গ্রামীণ বাংলাদেশে কৃষক গতিশীলতা, ( অনুবাদঃ ডালেম চন্দ্র বর্মণ ), সমাজ নিরীক্ষণ কেন্দ্র, কলা ভবন, ঢাকাঃ ঢাকা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়, ১৯৯৪ ।

মুহাম্মদ ইয়াইহিয়া আখতার, রাজনৈতিক সংস্কৃতি ও সামাজিকীকরণঃ প্রসঙ্গ বাংলাদেশ, ঢাকাঃ নিবেদন পাবলিকেশন্স, ১৯৮৯ ।

GP-205: Politics in Pakistan and the Emergence of Bangladesh (1947-1971)

Learning Objectives
  • To introduce learners to the socio-political and economic predicaments in the then East-Pakistan
  • To help students to learn about the political process and constitutional development from 1947 to 1971 and their consequences leading towards the independence of Bangladesh
Learning Outcomes
  • To demonstrate knowledge of political process and the procedure of political and constitutional development during the period of 1947 to 1971
  • To gauge the origin, trend, causes and consequences of popular movements and uprisings leading to independent Bangladesh
Course Content

State, Society, Culture, Colonial Legacies. Problems of Constitution Making.

Religious vs Secular interests. Growth of Regionalism, East-West Relationship-development of Internal Colonialism.

Political Actors: Power Elite, Conflicts with Vernacular Elite, Political Parties, Bureaucracy, Army, landed Aristocracy, Business and Industrial Interests, Students. Constitutions, 1956, 1962. Elections – 1954, 1970.

Political Movements – language Movement, 1952; Autonomy Movement, Six Point Demand and Movement 1966; Mass Upsurge, 69; Non-cooperation Movement, 1971: Causes and Various Dimensions of Liberation War, 1971 and the Emergence of Bangladesh.

Selected Readings

G. W. Choudhury, The Last Days of United Pakistan, London: C Hurst, 1974.

---------, Constitutional Development in Pakistan, London: Longman, 1969.

---------, Democracy in Pakistan, Dhaka: Green House, 1963.

Khalid Bin Sayeed, Politics in Pakistan: The Nature and Direction of Change New York: Praeger Publishers, 1980.

---------, Political System of Pakistan, 1967.

Rounaq Jahan, Pakistan: Failure in National Integration, New York: Columbia University Press, 1972.

---------, Bangladesh Politics: Problems and Issues, Dhaka, UPL, 1980.

Talukdar Maniruzzaman, The Bangladesh Revolution and Its Aftermath, Dhaka: UPL, 1988.

---------, The Politics of Development: The Case of Pakistan 1947-1958, Dhaka: Green Book House, 1980.

---------, Radical Politics and the Emergence of Bangladesh, Dhaka: Bangladesh Books International, 1975.

---------, Group Interests and Political Changes, New Delhi, 1982

GP-206: Liberation War and Genocide in Bangladesh

Learning Objectives
  • To develop an in-depth understanding of the general and specific sequence of events of the Liberation War and the nature of genocide committed by the Pakistani occupation forces. The course will deepen students’ knowledge of historical trials, specific stages, local, regional and global players, war strategies and the like that led to the formation of Bangladesh as in independent nation state.
Learning Outcomes
  • After completion of the course the students will develop their discerning of the phenomena in the light of the winds of the Liberation War. With factual knowledge and deeper understanding, the students will be able to conduct in-depth research on significant facts, various issues and dynamics of the Liberation War.
Course Content

Background of liberation of 1971

Leadership Style, Contribution and Struggle of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the Father of the Nation.

Mujibnagar Governmnet, Working of the Government, Funding Foreign Policy and Indian Role, Role of Tazuddin Ahmed, Maulana Bhasani and Other Leaders.

Strategy of Liberation War in 1971, Freedom forces, and War Plan, Organization of War Three Forces; Military, Air and Navy; Role of Lefties in War, Role of other Forces in 1971; Mujib Bahini, Kaderai Bahini, Hemayet Bahini and others.

Diplomatic Efforts in favour of Liberation War: Role of Major Powers (USA, UK, former USSAR & PRC).

Involvement of India and Refugee Issues

Genocide in 1971: Mass Murder, Rape, and Atrocities as Crime Against Humanity by Pakistan Army, Killing of Intellectuals of 14 December.

1971 War and Surrender of the Pakistani Occupied Forces.

Ultimate Victory and Bangladesh’s Emergence as an Independent Sovereign State.

Selected Readings

Ali Riaz, Inconvenient Truths about Bangladeshi Politics, Dhaka: Prothoma Prokashan, 2012.

Emajuddin Ahmed (ed.), Society and Politics in Bangladesh, Dhaka: Academic Publishers, 1989.

Archer K Blood, The Cruel Birth of Bangladesh: Memoirs of an American Diplomat The University Press Limited (UPL), 2002

James J. Novak, Bangladesh: Reflections on the Water, Dhaka: University Press Ltd., 1991.

Lawrence Lifschultz – Bangladesh: The Unfinished Revolution, Zed books, 1979

Lawrence Ziring, Bangladesh from Mujib to Ershad: An interpretive Study, Dhaka: UPL, 1994.

Lt Gen Jfr Jacob, Surrender at Dacca: Birth of a Nation, The University Press Limited (UPL), 1997

Muntassir Mamoon (Editor), 1971 Chuknagar Genocide , International Centre for Bengal Studies , 2011

Nizam Ahmed, The Parliament of Bangladesh, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002.

Rehman Sobhan, From Two Economies To Two Nations: My Journey To Bangladesh, The Daily Star Books, 2015

Richard Sisson& Leo Rose, War and Secession: Pakistan, India, and the Creation of Bangladesh, University of California Press, 1991

Rounaq Jahan, Pakistan: Failure in National Integration, New York: Columbia University Press, 1972.

---------, Bangladesh Politics: Problems and Issues, Dhaka, UPL, 1980.

Rounaq Jahan, Bangladesh Politics: Problems and Issues, Dhaka: UPL, 1980.

Srinath Raghavan, 1971: A Global History of the Creation of Bangladesh, Harvard University Press, 2013

Talukdar Maniruzzaman, The Bangladesh Revolution and Its Aftermath, Dhaka: UPL, 1988.

---------, The Politics of Development: The Case of Pakistan 1947-1958, Dhaka: Green Book House, 1980.

---------, Radical Politics and the Emergence of Bangladesh, Dhaka: Bangladesh Books International, 1975.

---------, Group Interests and Political Changes, New Delhi, 1982

GP-207: Local Government and Rural Politics in Bangladesh

Learning Objectives
  • To give students an overview with basic understanding about different school of thoughts to the study of local government
  • To enlighten them about historical evolution of local government in Bangladesh
  • To help students to learn about overall development affairs of local government institutions in Bangladesh, rural politics and challenges
Learning Outcomes
  • To apply different school of thoughts to understand the essence of local government in different political system;
  • To distinguish different development dimensions associated with local government in Bangladesh;
  • To leverage their understanding about different dimensions of rural development under the auspicious of local government
Course Content

Approaches to the Study of Local Government.

Local Government in Bangladesh: Historical Growth of Local Bodies.

Decentralization: Meaning, Types, Structure of Decentralization. Delegation.

Structure of Local Bodies: Linkage Between Formal Structure and Informal Structure.

Dynamics of Local Government in Bangladesh: The Process of Decision-making, The Administration of Local Finance, Local Level Planning.

Local Level Politics: Emerging Socio-anthropological Structure, Rural Power Structure. The Pattern of Leadership-politics of Brokerage, Politics of Factionalism: Patron-Client Relation.

Social Change: Rural Development, Problems and Trends, Political Participation.

(Field study is required for developing practical skill on local administration)

Selected Readings

Ahmed Shafiqul Haq, Politics and Administration in Bangladesh, Dhaka: UPL, 1988.

Ali Ahmed, Administration of Local Self-Government for Rural Areas in Bangladesh, Dhaka: NILG, 1979.

B. Hartmen and J.K. Boyce, A Quiet Violence: View from a Bangladesh Village, London: Zed Books, 1998.

Dalem Chandra Barman, Emerging Leadership Patterns in Rural Bangladesh, Dhaka: CSS, 1988.

Eliot Tepper, Changing Patterns of Administration in Rural East Pakistan, Michigan: Michigan state University Press, 1966.

Hasnat Abdul Hye (ed.), Village Studies in Bangladesh, Comilla: BARD, 1985.

Hugh Tinker, Foundations of Local Self-Government in India, Pakistan and Burma, London: Athlone Press, 1954.

Kamal Sidiqui (ed.), Local Government in South Asia: A Comparative Study, Dhaka: UPL, 1992.

M. Rashiduzzaman, Politics and Administration in the Local Councils, Dhaka: OUP, 1968.

Md. Moksuder Rahman, Politics and Development of Local Self Government in Bangladesh, Delhi: Devika Publications, 2000.

N. C. Roy, Rural Self-Government in Bengal, Calcutta: Calcutta University Press, 1936.

Najmul Abedin, Local Administration and Politics in Modernizing Societies: Bangladesh and Pakistan, Dhaka: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Nizam Ahmed, Bureaucracy and Local Politics in Bangladesh, Dhaka: A.H.D Publishing House, 2009.

R. Qadir and M. Islam, Women Representatives at the Union level as change agents of Development, Beijing: Newstar Publishers, 1995.

S. Maqsood Ali, Decentralization and People’s Participation in Bangladesh, Dhaka: NIPA, 1981.

Shairul Masreck, Kinship and Power Structure in Rural Bangladesh, USA: Homeland Press and Publications, 1995.

মোঃ আবদুল মাননান, গ্রামীণ সমাজ ও রাজনীতি, ঢাকাঃ অবসর প্রকাশনা, ২০১০ ।

-------, গ্রামীণ দারিদ্য, ঢাকাঃ অবসর প্রকাশনা, ২০০৬ ।

মোঃ মাকসুদুর রহমান, বাংলাদেশের স্থানীয় স্বায়ত্তশাসন, রাজশাহীঃ আলীগড় লাইব্রেরী, ২০০৫ ।

কে এম মহিউদ্দিন ও মোজাম্মেল হক, ইউনিয়ন পরিষদে নারীঃ পরিবর্তনশীল ধারা, ঢাকাঃ বাংলাদেশ নারী প্রগতি সংঘ, ২০০০ ।

বি কে জাহাঙ্গীর, বাংলাদেশের গ্রামাঞ্চল ও শ্রেণী সংগ্রাম, ঢাকাঃ সমাজ নিরীক্ষণ কেন্দ্র, ১৯৯৭ ।

আনু মোহাম্মদ, গ্রামীণ সমাজ ও অর্থনীতি, ঢাকাঃ ডানা প্রকাশনী, ১৯৮৭ ।

আরেফিন হেলাল উদ্দিন, শিমুলিয়াঃ বাংলাদেশের পরিবর্তনশীল কৃষি কাঠামো, ঢাকাঃ সমাজ নিরীক্ষণ কেন্দ্র, ১৯৯৪ ।

আরেন্স ইয়েনেকা ও বুরদ্যান ইউস ফান, ঝগড়াপুরঃ গ্রাম বাংলার গৃহস্থ ও নারী, অনুবাদঃ নিলুফার মতিন, ঢাকাঃ গণ প্রকাশনী, ১৯৮০ ।

কামাল সিদ্দিকী, বাংলাদেশের গ্রামীণ দারিদ্যঃ স্বরূপ ও সমাধান, ঢাকাঃ ডানা প্রকাশনী, ১৯৮৫ ।

বাটোরসি পিটার ডে, অস্পষ্ট গ্রামঃ পূর্ব পাকিস্তানের গ্রামীণ সামাজিক কাঠামো এবং সম্প্রদায় ভিত্তিক সংগঠন, অনুবাদঃ মোহাম্মদ আব্দুর রহমান মিঞা, ঢাকাঃ ন্যাশনাল ইনিস্টিটিউট অব লোকাল গভর্নমেন্ট, ১৯৯২ ।

রহমান আসহাবুর, বাংলাদেশের কৃষি কাঠামো কৃষক সমাজ ও উন্নয়ন, ঢাকাঃ ইউনিভার্সিটি প্রেস লিঃ, ১৯৮৬ ।

রহমান হোসেন জিলুর, মাঠ গবেষণা ও গ্রামীণ দারিদ্যঃ পদ্ধতি বিষয়ে কতিপয় সংলাপ, ঢাকাঃ ইউনিভার্সিটি প্রেস লিঃ, ১৯৯৮ ।

GP-208: Major Political Systems: UK, USA, PRC and Russia

Learning Objectives
  • To expose students to the fabrics of the political system, constitutional development, principles and amendment procedures of the global leading political system
  • To recognize students with governmental and administrative unit with specific focus on Executive, Legislature, the Judicial system, Bureaucracy and the electoral system of the selected countries
Learning Outcomes
  • To be able to explain and discuss the political system and constitutional development of UK, USA, PRC and Russia
  • To be able to compare political systems with major ones
Course Content

Historical Background: Constitutional Development, Principles and Amendment Procedures. Government and Administration: the Executive, the Legislative Process, the Judicial System, Bureaucracy, the Electoral System(s), the Party System, Interest Groups, Political Culture and Participation, Regional and Local Administration.

Selected Readings

Andre Mathiot, The British Political System, Standford: Standford University Press, 1958.

Andrew Knapp and Vincent Wright, The Government and Politics of France, London and New York: Routledge, 2001.

Beyme, Klaus Von, The Bundestag- Still the Centre of Decision-Making?”, in Ludger Helms (eds.), Institutions and Institutional Change in the Federal Republic of Germany, New York: St. Martin’s Press, Inc., 2000.

Chien Tuan Sheng, Government and Politics of China, New York: Oxford University Press, 1950.

D. Doel, Comparative Government and Politics, New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Limited, 1982.

Harold Zink, American Government and Politics, Princeton, NJ: D Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1958.

Herman Finer, The Theory and Practice of Modern Government, London: Methuen, 1961.

Jocelyn A. J. Evans (eds.), The French Party System, Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2003.

John W. Hall, Japan: From Prehistory to Modern Times, Tokyo: Charles E Tuttle Co., 1970.

L. Sandy Maisel, American Political Parties and Elections: A Very Short Introduction, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Lucian Pye, China: An Introduction, Little: Brown; 1984.

Michael Curtis (eds.), Western European Government and Politics, Longman, 1997.

Michael Curtis, Introduction to Comparative Government, New York: Longman, 1997.

Michael Newman. Democracy, Sovereignty and the European Union, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.

R. E. Dolan and R L Worden, Japan: A Country Study, Washington DC: Library of Congress, 1991.

R. Rose, Understanding Big Government, London: Sage Publications, 1984.

Roger Charlton, Comparative Government, London: Longman, 1986.

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